State All other workers Domestic workers House cleaners Nannies Child care (in?own home) Home care (non-agency) Home care (agency-based) Connecticut 1,854,406 30,016 4,618 3,700 3,546 2,826 15,009 Maine 695,023 10,931 883 869 1,760 807 6,663 Massachusetts 3,511,411 50,085 6,267 6,390 5,588 2,971 29,386 New Hampshire 753,295 8,011 841 1,181 964 516 4,536 New Jersey 4,471,507 56,112 10,550 6,631 5,496 2,663 30,892 New York 9,360,472 258,155 30,949 17,764 24,117 8,378 190,515 Pennsylvania 6,340,703 74,297 6,870 6,620 5,963 4,825 54,453 Rhode Island 554,549 5,601 585 687 771 233 3,345 Vermont 354,627 6,186 619 521 1,187 649 3,002 Illinois 6,448,489 84,647 8,657 11,219 14,719 5,230 42,236 Indiana 3,227,001 30,366 3,387 2,741 5,438 1,079 17,183 Iowa 1,695,788 22,610 1,578 2,184 7,403 758 8,053 Kansas 1,490,107 22,938 1,910 3,042 5,152 705 10,843 Michigan 4,781,699 63,973 5,066 7,350 10,895 4,053 35,789 Minnesota 2,976,346 48,691 2,917 4,966 11,186 2,066 25,511 Missouri 3,023,480 43,548 3,152 4,073 6,578 1,530 28,977 Nebraska 1,020,590 12,842 1,113 1,606 4,071 461 3,976 North Dakota 394,134 5,526 286 471 1,911 198 1,998 Ohio 5,762,605 74,214 7,097 7,210 10,184 2,374 48,709 South Dakota 453,616 4,987 325 499 2,010 136 1,156 Wisconsin 3,082,812 41,105 2,409 3,867 7,207 2,165 25,492 Alabama 2,167,013 19,429 3,988 2,291 2,183 2,174 8,264 Arkansas 1,334,766 16,837 2,584 1,022 1,596 1,134 11,092 Delaware 451,111 4,330 438 424 813 268 2,266 Washington D.C. 344,833 4,021 813 899 247 197 1,808 Florida 9,258,211 104,482 37,002 9,088 7,218 8,567 38,969 Georgia 4,745,118 41,810 8,899 6,848 5,058 3,264 15,768 Kentucky 2,009,155 18,064 3,227 1,832 2,971 1,848 7,302 Louisiana 2,057,857 31,380 4,921 2,566 2,817 2,780 19,113 Maryland 3,080,645 36,947 6,766 6,992 6,726 1,961 11,292 Mississippi 1,273,037 11,609 2,323 713 1,730 1,279 5,188 North Carolina 4,560,543 59,710 7,041 6,288 6,235 2,842 39,024 Oklahoma 1,789,220 20,858 3,012 1,665 2,833 1,216 12,176 South Carolina 2,154,162 19,569 3,136 2,098 2,308 1,517 10,434 Tennessee 3,048,589 31,370 5,370 2,664 3,767 3,493 15,825 Texas 12,297,893 213,896 42,267 16,876 15,865 10,914 134,434 Virginia 4,159,587 56,406 7,752 10,434 8,526 5,238 21,542 West Virginia 788,773 13,038 887 479 1,207 917 10,563 Alaska 346,681 5,713 230 481 1,013 252 3,802 Arizona 3,053,357 40,736 7,390 3,905 4,130 4,662 20,558 California 17,989,336 358,013 74,374 30,359 35,743 28,994 188,209 Colorado 2,767,754 35,900 6,025 6,698 5,395 1,539 14,306 Hawaii 662,053 5,084 842 221 724 547 2,714 Idaho 774,528 11,229 812 1,192 2,118 1,018 5,797 Montana 508,979 6,291 572 631 1,129 352 3,496 Nevada 1,335,289 9,518 2,212 1,148 1,067 850 3,915 New Mexico 915,274 20,904 1,992 650 1,587 1,509 16,872 Oregon 1,929,241 29,320 2,777 3,342 5,017 3,086 14,311 Utah 1,413,140 11,367 1,181 2,104 2,792 376 3,783 Washington 3,449,723 49,080 4,293 8,143 6,546 3,767 25,891 Wyoming 297,389 3,295 323 292 804 216 1,441

Note:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this map draws from pooled 2010–2019 microdata.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

This map is color-coded to show which states have the most domestic workers. You can click on a state to display how many domestic workers total are employed there, and how many are employed in each domestic worker occupation, and compare these with the number of workers in all other occupations. You can access the map data from Table 4, which also shows employment counts by region. Employment counts for selected metropolitan areas are available in Table 5.

We have also provided supplemental tables with?demographic breakdowns and?median hourly wages of domestic workers in each region and state and in selected metropolitan areas.

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There is a wide and persistent gap between domestic workers’ wages and wages of all other workers: Median real hourly wages of domestic workers, by occupation, versus other workers, 2005–2019

8
All other workers Home?care (agency-based)? Home?care (non-agency) House cleaners Nannies
2005 $19.21 $11.34 $11.81 $11.21 $10.54
2006 $19.05 $11.35 $11.97 $11.13 $10.42
2007 $18.99 $11.34 $12.27 $10.98 $10.52
2008 $18.99 $11.31 $12.21 $11.07 $10.53
2009 $19.12 $11.32 $12.07 $11.39 $10.66
2010 $19.32 $11.35 $11.93 $11.64 $10.58
2011 $19.29 $11.49 $11.90 $11.50 $10.41
2012 $19.07 $11.36 $12.15 $11.37 $10.27
2013 $18.92 $11.22 $11.38 $11.28 $10.73
2014 $18.87 $11.04 $11.19 $10.85 $10.76
2015 $18.98 $11.01 $11.11 $10.76 $10.82
2016 $19.27 $11.18 $11.75 $10.79 $10.81
2017 $19.52 $11.51 $11.81 $11.11 $11.08
2018 $19.72 $11.67 $11.84 $11.41 $11.87
2019 $19.97 $12.08 $11.89 $11.89 $11.60
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Notes:?Wages include overtime, tips, and commissions and are computed from rolling three-year pooled microdata (i.e., “2019” is pooled 2017–2019 data, “2018” is pooled 2016–2018 data, “2017” is pooled 2015–2017 data, etc.).?Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org

There is a large “domestic worker wage gap”—a wide gulf between the median hourly wage of domestic workers and the median hourly wage of all other workers. The wage gap for domestic workers is not only large, but it is also persistent. Like other typical workers, domestic workers have seen stagnant wages for decades (since well before 2005, which is the starting point in this chart because it is the first year for which data are available for the domestic worker occupations defined in our analyses). For an in-depth look at the sluggish wage growth of the last 40 years, see EPI’s report?State of Working America Wages 2019.6

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The pay gap for domestic workers is widest for nannies: Median real hourly wages, domestic workers (all and by occupation) versus other workers, 2019

9
Hourly wage
Domestic workers $12.01
All other workers $19.97
House cleaners $11.89
Nannies $11.60
Home?care (non-agency) $11.89
Home?care (agency-based)? $12.08
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Notes: Wages include overtime, tips, and commissions and are computed from pooled 2017–2019 microdata to ensure sufficient sample size. Data are in 2019 dollars. Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org

The typical domestic worker is paid $12.01 per hour, including overtime, tips, and commissions—39.8% less than the typical nondomestic worker, who is paid $19.97. This wide gap between domestic workers’ wages and the wages of all other workers is consistent across domestic worker occupations.

Table 6 shows the median hourly wages of domestic workers, all other workers, and domestic workers by occupation broken out by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age. We have also provided supplemental tables with median hourly wages of domestic workers by demographic group for each region and state and for selected metropolitan areas.

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Domestic workers who are male, U.S.-born, AAPI, college-educated, or ages 50 and older have the biggest wage gaps relative to their peers in other professions: Median real hourly wages, domestic workers versus other workers, 2019

10
Hourly wage
Domestic workers $12.01
Other workers $19.97
Domestic workers $12.85
Other workers $21.62
Domestic workers $13.00
Other workers $24.46
Domestic workers $13.49
Other workers $30.09
Domestic workers $12.04
Other workers $22.87
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Notes:?This chart pulls the demographic worker categories with the largest percent difference between the hourly wages of all other workers and domestic workers in Table 6. Wages include overtime, tips, and commissions and are computed from pooled 2017–2019 microdata to ensure sufficient sample size. Data are in 2019 dollars.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org

W
ithin every demographic category that we analyze, domestic workers are typically paid less than their peers. Male domestic workers face a larger wage gap relative to other men ($8.77, or 40.6%) than do female domestic workers ($6.27, or 34.4%; not shown). Asian American/Pacific Islander domestic workers, older domestic workers, and domestic workers with at least a bachelor’s degree also face particularly large within-group wage gaps.

Table 6 shows the median hourly wages of all domestic workers versus all other workers, and by domestic worker occupation, broken out by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age.

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Even when controlling for demographics and education, domestic workers are paid less than similar workers: Average domestic worker hourly wages as a share of wages paid to demographically similar workers in other professions, 2019

11
Wage share Wage gap
Domestic workers 74.1% 25.9%
Other workers 100.0%
House cleaners 79.1% 20.9%
Nannies 79.8% 20.2%
Home?care (non-agency) 64.5% 35.5%
Home?care (agency-based) 73.5% 26.5%
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Notes:?All wage gaps are significantly different from zero at the 0.01 level. The regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.?Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org

E
ven when we control for demographics and educational background using regressions, domestic workers face a big pay gap: The average domestic worker is paid 74 cents for every dollar that a similar worker would make in another occupation—or 26% less. Home care aides who are not agency-based face the largest wage gap: Their wages are two-thirds the wages of demographically similar workers—a third less. Although the regression-adjusted wage gap is smaller for nannies and house cleaners, they are still paid only about 80 cents for every dollar that a similar worker would make in another occupation.

Table 7 shows regression-adjusted hourly wage gaps for all domestic workers and for each domestic worker occupation, broken out by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age.

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Domestic workers are more likely to work part time and more than twice as likely to work part time because they can’t get full-time hours: Share of workers who work full and part time, for domestic workers, for all other workers, and by domestic worker occupation, 2019

12
Full-time Part-time for economic reasons (i.e., want full-time work) Part-time for noneconomic reasons
Domestic workers 54.8% 9.7% 35.6%
All other workers 77.3% 4.0% 18.7%
House cleaners 37.0% 15.0% 47.9%
Nannies 52.3% 7.4% 40.3%
Child care (in?own home) 67.4% 6.2% 26.4%
Home?care (non-agency) 51.7% 9.3% 39.0%
Home?care (agency-based) 57.6% 9.4% 33.0%
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Notes: “Part-time” is defined as usually working less than 35 hours per week on the primary job. Those who say they are?working part time because they could only find part-time work or because of slack work or business conditions are categorized by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as part-timers “for economic reasons” and often described as workers who would prefer to work full time. The “part-time for noneconomic reasons” category includes workers who say they work part time to take care of their children or for other family and personal reasons; while they may prefer to work full time if, say, they could afford child care, they are not included in the standard count of part-timers who want full-time work. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

I
n addition to having lower hourly wages, domestic workers tend to work fewer hours than other workers.?Nearly half of domestic workers work part time, compared with less than a quarter of all other workers. Much of this difference is at least somewhat “voluntary,” with domestic workers being more likely than other workers to have a part-time job because they want a part-time schedule (or need a part-time schedule to handle child care or other responsibilities). But domestic workers are also more than twice as likely as other workers to want a full-time job but to have to settle for a part-time job because they can’t get full-time hours. The greater likelihood of wanting but being unable to get full-time work is particularly acute for house cleaners, 15% of whom work part time but would like a full-time job. The greater incidence of part-time work among domestic workers is reflected in their average weekly hours on the job (not shown). While workers in other occupations put in just under 40 hours a week on average, domestic workers spend an average of 33.4 hours on the job each week.

Table 8 displays the data from this chart, as well as the average weekly hours of domestic workers.

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Domestic workers are paid less in a year than other workers: Median annual earnings, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018

13
Median annual earnings
Domestic workers $15,980
All other workers $39,120
House cleaners $14,915
Nannies $13,558
Home care (non-agency) $18,111
Home care (agency-based) $20,337
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Notes:?Earnings include reported annual wage and salary income but exclude income from unemployment insurance, child support, investments, Social Security, etc. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata. Since the earnings measure we use here does not include earnings from self-employment, earnings of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

T
he combination of lower average hours and much lower median wages (shown in Table 8 and Figure 9) results in substantially lower annual earnings for domestic workers relative to other workers. The typical domestic worker’s annual earnings are just two-fifths of a typical worker’s in another occupation. While typical agency-based home care aides have higher annual earnings than domestic workers in other occupations, they still are paid just half of what workers outside the domestic workforce are paid in a year.

Table 9 shows the median annual earnings of all domestic workers, domestic worker occupations, and all other workers, broken out by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age.

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Even when controlling for demographics and education, domestic workers are paid less in a year than similar workers: Average domestic worker annual earnings as a share of earnings paid to demographically similar workers in other professions, 2018

14
Earnings share Earnings gap
Domestic workers 46.2% 53.8%
Other workers 100%
House cleaners 33.2% 66.8%
Nannies 28.7% 71.3%
Home care (non-agency) 41.7% 58.3%
Home care (agency-based) 57.2% 42.8%

 

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Notes:?All earnings gaps are significantly different from zero at the 0.01 level. The regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?Since the earnings measure we use here does not include earnings from self-employment, earnings of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

E
ven when we control for demographics and educational background using a regression, domestic workers face a big pay gap as a result of lower hourly wages and fewer hours: The average domestic worker is paid less than half of what a similar worker would make in another profession on an annual basis. Nannies face the largest gap: Their annual earnings are less than one-third the earnings of a demographically similar worker. Although the regression-adjusted earnings gap is smaller for agency-based home care aides, they are still paid 42.8% less annually than a similar worker would be paid in another occupation.

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Domestic workers are three times as likely to be in poverty and almost three times as likely to lack enough income to make ends meet: Poverty rates and twice-poverty rates of domestic workers versus other workers, 2018

15
Rate
Domestic workers 16.8%
All other workers 5.0%
House cleaners 25.4%
Nannies 20.1%
Child care (in own home) 13.3%
Home care (non-agency) 14.2%
Home care (agency-based) 15.1%
Domestic workers 44.3%
All other workers 16.9%
House cleaners 54.8%
Nannies 39.0%
Child care (in own home) 32.4%
Home care (non-agency) 36.4%
Home care (agency-based) 45.8%
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Notes: The poverty rate is the share of workers whose family income is below the official poverty line. The twice-poverty rate is the share of workers whose family income is below twice the official poverty line. Since poverty thresholds set in the 1960s have not evolved to reflect changing shares of spending on various necessities by low-income families, researchers often use the twice-poverty rate as a better cutoff for whether a family is able to make ends meet.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

D
omestic workers are much more likely than other workers to be living in poverty, regardless of occupation. They are also much more likely to have incomes that fall below the twice-poverty threshold, which is considered by many researchers a better cutoff for whether a family has enough income to make ends meet. The majority of house cleaners are struggling to make ends meet (their “twice-poverty” rate is 54.8%) and more than a quarter (25.4%) have incomes that put them below the official poverty threshold. Workers who provide child care in their own homes have somewhat lower poverty rates than other domestic workers, although a third of them (32.4%) still do not have enough income to make ends meet—about twice the share of the nondomestic workforce living below the twice-poverty line. Domestic workers who are not U.S. citizens and those without a high school diploma face particularly high poverty rates, as do black and Hispanic domestic workers. (These data are shown at the end of the chartbook in Table 10 and Table 11, which provide poverty and twice-poverty rates for domestic workers and all other workers broken out by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age.)

Poverty researchers generally do not consider the poverty rate to be a good measure of the share of families who cannot make ends meet in part because the poverty thresholds were set in the 1960s and have not evolved to reflect changing shares of spending on various necessities by low-income families. That is why “twice poverty” is often used as a cutoff for whether a family is able to make ends meet.

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Even when controlling for demographics and education, domestic workers are more likely to live below the poverty line than similar workers: Percentage-point difference between the poverty rate of domestic workers and that of demographically similar workers in other occupations, 2018

16
Poverty rate ppt. difference
Domestic workers 8.5
House cleaners 14.0
Nannies 10.8
Child care (in?own home) 6.4
Home care (non-agency) 7.1
Home care (agency-based) 7.0
Domestic workers 17.8
House cleaners 19.5
Nannies 11.1
Child care (in?own home) 9.8
Home care (non-agency) 13.6
Home care (agency-based) 19.9
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Notes: All poverty rate differences are significantly different from zero at the?0.01 level. The regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division.?The “twice-poverty rate” is the share of workers whose family income is below twice the official poverty line, and is often considered a better cutoff for whether a family is able to make ends meet.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

E
ven when we compare domestic workers exclusively with workers in other professions who are demographically similar, domestic workers are still much more likely to be living in poverty. House cleaners on average have a poverty rate that is 14.0 percentage points higher than the poverty rate of similar workers. Along with agency-based home care aides, house cleaners also have twice-poverty rates that are nearly 20 percentage points higher than you would expect these rates to be if these workers were employed in nondomestic occupations. (The twice-poverty rate is the share of workers whose family income falls below the twice-poverty threshold, considered by many researchers a better cutoff for whether a family has enough income to make ends meet.)

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Domestic workers are less likely to have health or retirement benefits: Employer-provided health insurance and retirement coverage rates, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018

17
Coverage rate
Domestic workers 19.1%
All other workers 48.9%
House cleaners 7.3%
Nannies 15.1%
Child care (in?own home) 6.8%
Home care (non-agency) 17.1%
Home care (agency-based) 25.2%
Domestic workers 9.1%
All other workers 32.8%
House cleaners 2.0%
Nannies 3.5%
Child care (in?own home) 2.6%
Home care (non-agency) 6.6%
Home care (agency-based) 13.1%
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Note: To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

J
ust under one in five domestic workers has employer-provided health insurance, a shockingly low coverage rate compared with the near-majority of other workers who receive health insurance through their job. Coverage rates are less than 10% for house cleaners and workers who provide child care in their own home. Even agency-based home care aides, the domestic worker occupation with the highest employer-provided health insurance coverage rate, are barely half as likely to be covered as nondomestic workers.

The coverage rates for employer-provided retirement plans are even more dismal—fewer than one in 10 domestic workers are covered. By comparison, about a third of other workers benefit from their employer contributing to their retirement savings.

See Table 12 and Table 13 for variations in employer-provided health insurance and retirement coverage rates for domestic and all other workers by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, and age.

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Even when controlling for demographics and education, domestic workers are less likely to have benefits than similar workers: Percentage-point gap between the coverage rates of domestic workers and those of demographically similar workers in other occupations, 2018

18
Coverage gap
Domestic workers 21.4
House cleaners 26.2
Nannies 18.4
Child care (in own home) 34.5
Home care (non-agency) 24.9
Home care (agency-based) 17.1
Domestic workers 17.1
House cleaners 17.3
Nannies 17.3
Child care (in?own home) 26.6
Home care (non-agency) 20.6
Home care (agency-based) 14.1

 

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Note: All coverage gaps are significantly different from zero at the 0.01 level, using heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors. Regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

The glaring gaps in health insurance and retirement coverage rates are evident even when we compare domestic workers with demographically similar workers. The share of domestic workers with employer-provided health insurance is 21.4 percentage points lower than the share of all other workers with such coverage. And the share of domestic workers with employer-provided retirement plans is 17.1 percentage points lower than the share of all other workers with such coverage. Agency-based home care aides are more likely than other domestic workers to have employer-provided benefits, but the gap between these workers and nondomestic workers remains enormous even after controlling for demographic characteristics.

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Employment in domestic worker occupations is growing faster than the rest of the workforce: Projected employment change, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018–2028

19
Projected employment change
Domestic workers 22.9%
All other workers 6.9%
House cleaners -10.9%
Nannies -10.6%
Child care (in own home) 2.7%
Home care (non-agency) 1.8%
Home care (agency-based) 45.4%
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Notes: All but one of the domestic worker occupations are defined in exactly the same way here as they are defined elsewhere in the chartbook. The only difference is that here, due to data limitations, workers who provide child care in their own homes are defined as any child care workers who are self-employed (either incorporated or unincorporated). In the rest of our analysis, the definition of workers who provide child care in their own homes is somewhat more restrictive: child care workers who work in the child day care services industry who are self-employed?but not incorporated.

Source:?Economic Policy?Institute (EPI) analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections program public data series

Employment in domestic worker occupations is projected to grow more than three times as fast as employment in other occupations over a decade—22.9% compared with 6.9%. This trend is driven by the expected large increase (45.4%) in agency-based home care aides, who make up about half of the domestic employee workforce.

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Table 1

Home care aides make up the majority of domestic workers: Employment in domestic worker occupations, 2019

Occupation Number of workers
House cleaners 343,527
Child care workers
Nannies 225,933
Provider in own home 276,311
Home care aides
Non-agency-based 141,400
Agency-based 1,257,878
Total domestic workers 2,245,047

Note: To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 2

Demographic characteristics of domestic workers: Shares of domestic workers in different occupations with given characteristic, 2019

 

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non-agency-based Agency-based
All 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Gender
Female 46.3% 91.5% 45.2 95.5% 96.8% 97.2% 86.1% 88.8%
Male 53.7% 8.5% -45.2 4.5% 3.2% 2.8% 13.9% 11.2%
Nativity
U.S.-born 82.9% 64.9% -18.0 30.7% 71.6% 70.9% 76.7% 70.4%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen 8.4% 14.8% 6.4 18.5% 11.4% 12.3% 10.6% 15.4%
Foreign-born noncitizen 8.7% 20.3% 11.6 50.8% 16.9% 16.8% 12.6% 14.2%
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 62.9% 41.7% -21.3 29.0% 64.6% 54.8% 51.3% 37.0%
Black, non-Hispanic 11.9% 21.7% 9.7 6.5% 7.9% 13.3% 20.1% 30.3%
Hispanic, any race 17.1% 29.1% 12.0 61.5% 23.8% 28.4% 19.5% 22.4%
Asian American/Pacific Islander 6.9% 6.3% -0.6 2.2% 3.3% 2.7% 7.2% 8.6%
Other 1.1% 1.3% 0.2 0.8% 0.5% 0.8% 2.0% 1.6%
Education
Not high school graduate 8.0% 19.1% 11.1 38.9% 14.6% 17.0% 11.0% 15.9%
High school graduate 25.8% 37.6% 11.8 36.9% 30.8% 34.1% 36.2% 40.0%
Some college 28.0% 30.1% 2.1 15.4% 32.9% 34.5% 35.4% 32.1%
Bachelor’s degree 24.3% 10.7% -13.6 7.7% 17.9% 12.1% 14.2% 9.6%
Advanced degree 13.8% 2.4% -11.4 1.2% 3.8% 2.2% 3.2% 2.4%
Age
Under 23 8.3% 9.0% 0.7 2.8% 35.7% 5.9% 6.1% 6.8%
23–29 15.7% 12.9% -2.8 5.9% 25.4% 10.4% 9.7% 13.5%
30–39 22.0% 18.6% -3.4 20.1% 11.8% 17.8% 14.2% 20.0%
40–49 20.6% 19.5% -1.1 28.3% 9.0% 22.6% 16.9% 18.6%
50–54 10.2% 11.7% 1.4 13.9% 4.8% 12.7% 12.4% 12.0%
55–59 9.8% 11.5% 1.7 12.4% 6.1% 15.2% 14.0% 11.2%
60–64 7.2% 8.3% 1.1 8.6% 4.6% 7.7% 11.4% 8.7%
65+ 6.2% 8.5% 2.3 7.9% 2.7% 7.7% 15.2% 9.2%
Median age 41 45 47 26 47 51 45

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or who lack an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 3

Race/ethnicity and nativity of domestic workers, by gender: Shares of domestic workers in different occupations with given characteristic, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provide care in own home Non-agency-based Agency-based
All 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Race/ethnicity and gender
White, non-Hispanic, female 29.2% 37.9% 8.8 27.7% 63.1% 53.1% 42.1% 32.4%
Black, non-Hispanic, female 6.2% 19.7% 13.5 6.1% 7.4% 13.1% 18.5% 27.2%
Hispanic, any race, female 7.1% 27.2% 20.1 58.9% 22.6% 27.8% 17.7% 20.3%
Asian American/Pacific Islander, female 3.2% 5.5% 2.3 2.0% 3.1% 2.6% 6.3% 7.4%
Other, female 0.5% 1.2% 0.6 0.8% 0.4% 0.7% 1.6% 1.4%
White, non-Hispanic, male 33.8% 3.7% -30.0 1.3% 1.5% 1.8% 9.2% 4.6%
Black, non-Hispanic, male 5.7% 2.0% -3.8 0.4% 0.5% 0.2% 1.6% 3.1%
Hispanic, any race, male 10.0% 1.9% -8.1 2.7% 1.2% 0.6% 1.8% 2.1%
Asian American/Pacific Islander, male 3.7% 0.8% -2.9 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.9% 1.2%
Other, male 0.6% 0.1% -0.4 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.2%
Nativity and gender
U.S.-born, female 39.3% 58.7% 19.3 28.7% 69.5% 68.6% 64.2% 62.1%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen, female 3.8% 13.6% 9.8 17.5% 11.1% 12.2% 10.2% 13.7%
Foreign-born noncitizen,? female 3.1% 19.2% 16.1 49.3% 16.2% 16.4% 11.7% 13.0%
U.S.-born, male 43.6% 6.2% -37.4 2.1% 2.1% 2.3% 12.6% 8.3%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen, male 4.6% 1.2% -3.4 1.0% 0.4% 0.1% 0.5% 1.7%
Foreign-born noncitizen, male 5.5% 1.1% -4.4 1.5% 0.7% 0.4% 0.9% 1.2%

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 4

Employment in domestic worker occupations, by region and state, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non- agency-based Agency-based
All 153,215,916 2,245,047 343,527 225,933 276,311 141,400 1,257,878
Northeast 27,895,992 499,394 62,182 44,364 49,392 23,869 337,799
Connecticut 1,854,406 30,016 4,618 3,700 3,546 2,826 15,009
Maine 695,023 10,931 883 869 1,760 807 6,663
Massachusetts 3,511,411 50,085 6,267 6,390 5,588 2,971 29,386
New Hampshire 753,295 8,011 841 1,181 964 516 4,536
New Jersey 4,471,507 56,112 10,550 6,631 5,496 2,663 30,892
New York 9,360,472 258,155 30,949 17,764 24,117 8,378 190,515
Pennsylvania 6,340,703 74,297 6,870 6,620 5,963 4,825 54,453
Rhode Island 554,549 5,601 585 687 771 233 3,345
Vermont 354,627 6,186 619 521 1,187 649 3,002
Midwest 34,356,668 455,447 37,896 49,225 86,753 20,755 249,924
Illinois 6,448,489 84,647 8,657 11,219 14,719 5,230 42,236
Indiana 3,227,001 30,366 3,387 2,741 5,438 1,079 17,183
Iowa 1,695,788 22,610 1,578 2,184 7,403 758 8,053
Kansas 1,490,107 22,938 1,910 3,042 5,152 705 10,843
Michigan 4,781,699 63,973 5,066 7,350 10,895 4,053 35,789
Minnesota 2,976,346 48,691 2,917 4,966 11,186 2,066 25,511
Missouri 3,023,480 43,548 3,152 4,073 6,578 1,530 28,977
Nebraska 1,020,590 12,842 1,113 1,606 4,071 461 3,976
North Dakota 394,134 5,526 286 471 1,911 198 1,998
Ohio 5,762,605 74,214 7,097 7,210 10,184 2,374 48,709
South Dakota 453,616 4,987 325 499 2,010 136 1,156
Wisconsin 3,082,812 41,105 2,409 3,867 7,207 2,165 25,492
South 55,520,511 703,756 140,427 73,179 72,100 49,608 365,058
Alabama 2,167,013 19,429 3,988 2,291 2,183 2,174 8,264
Arkansas 1,334,766 16,837 2,584 1,022 1,596 1,134 11,092
Delaware 451,111 4,330 438 424 813 268 2,266
District of Columbia 344,833 4,021 813 899 247 197 1,808
Florida 9,258,211 104,482 37,002 9,088 7,218 8,567 38,969
Georgia 4,745,118 41,810 8,899 6,848 5,058 3,264 15,768
Kentucky 2,009,155 18,064 3,227 1,832 2,971 1,848 7,302
Louisiana 2,057,857 31,380 4,921 2,566 2,817 2,780 19,113
Maryland 3,080,645 36,947 6,766 6,992 6,726 1,961 11,292
Mississippi 1,273,037 11,609 2,323 713 1,730 1,279 5,188
North Carolina 4,560,543 59,710 7,041 6,288 6,235 2,842 39,024
Oklahoma 1,789,220 20,858 3,012 1,665 2,833 1,216 12,176
South Carolina 2,154,162 19,569 3,136 2,098 2,308 1,517 10,434
Tennessee 3,048,589 31,370 5,370 2,664 3,767 3,493 15,825
Texas 12,297,893 213,896 42,267 16,876 15,865 10,914 134,434
Virginia 4,159,587 56,406 7,752 10,434 8,526 5,238 21,542
West Virginia 788,773 13,038 887 479 1,207 917 10,563
West 35,442,745 586,450 103,022 59,165 68,066 47,168 305,096
Alaska 346,681 5,713 230 481 1,013 252 3,802
Arizona 3,053,357 40,736 7,390 3,905 4,130 4,662 20,558
California 17,989,336 358,013 74,374 30,359 35,743 28,994 188,209
Colorado 2,767,754 35,900 6,025 6,698 5,395 1,539 14,306
Hawaii 662,053 5,084 842 221 724 547 2,714
Idaho 774,528 11,229 812 1,192 2,118 1,018 5,797
Montana 508,979 6,291 572 631 1,129 352 3,496
Nevada 1,335,289 9,518 2,212 1,148 1,067 850 3,915
New Mexico 915,274 20,904 1,992 650 1,587 1,509 16,872
Oregon 1,929,241 29,320 2,777 3,342 5,017 3,086 14,311
Utah 1,413,140 11,367 1,181 2,104 2,792 376 3,783
Washington 3,449,723 49,080 4,293 8,143 6,546 3,767 25,891
Wyoming 297,389 3,295 323 292 804 216 1,441

Note:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2010–2019 microdata.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 5

Employment in domestic worker occupations, by selected metropolitan area, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
Metropolitan area All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non- agency-based Agency-based
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, Mass.* 969,980 15,021 2,412 1,804 1,476 755 8,687
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, Ill.* 4,330,297 56,210 5,719 9,038 8,776 3,546 28,081
Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, Texas 3,057,343 46,201 11,334 5,840 4,121 1,645 22,962
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, Calif. 2,580,766 55,888 15,868 3,605 4,054 5,970 26,447
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, Fla. 2,931,316 54,494 27,891 3,057 2,673 2,872 16,370
New York, N.Y.* 6,070,857 218,103 28,083 15,451 17,500 5,641 159,340
Philadelphia, Pa.* 1,958,882 30,551 2,740 3,143 1,805 1,930 22,301
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, Ariz. 2,149,878 26,953 5,011 2,730 2,652 3,435 13,107
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, Calif. 2,417,860 43,435 7,541 7,437 5,521 2,372 19,632
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, Wash. 1,973,355 24,502 3,110 5,940 3,403 1,904 9,286

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2010–2019 microdata. *Indicates a metropolitan area that has been restricted to one state.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 6

Median real hourly wages, domestic workers versus other workers, by demographic group, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percent difference House cleaners Nannies Non- agency-based Agency-based
Median hourly wage $19.97 $12.01 -39.8% $11.89 $11.60 $11.89 $12.08
Gender
Female $18.23 $11.96 -34.4% $11.93 $11.59 $11.62 $12.01
Male $21.62 $12.85 -40.6% NA NA NA $12.99
Nativity
U.S. born $20.16 $11.86 -41.2% $11.91 $11.57 $12.14 $11.88
Foreign-born U.S. citizen $21.21 $12.69 -40.2% $11.85 NA NA $13.03
Foreign-born noncitizen $15.86 $12.09 -23.8% $11.88 NA NA $12.44
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic $21.95 $12.17 -44.5% $12.25 $11.66 $12.41 $12.25
Black, non-Hispanic $16.56 $11.59 -30.0% NA NA NA $11.75
Hispanic, any race $16.06 $11.86 -26.2% $11.67 $11.67 NA $11.93
Asian American/Pacific Islander $24.46 $13.00 -46.9% NA NA NA $13.13
Other $17.21 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school graduate $12.27 $11.14 -9.3% $10.99 NA NA $11.28
High school graduate $16.16 $11.97 -26.0% $12.06 $11.85 $11.24 $12.00
Some college $17.62 $12.20 -30.8% $13.06 $11.63 $11.60 $12.24
Bachelor’s degree or more $30.09 $13.49 -55.2% NA $13.37 NA $13.63
Age
Under 23 $11.29 $10.74 -4.9% NA $10.45 NA $11.16
23–49 $20.37 $12.20 -40.1% $11.94 $12.92 $12.39 $12.20
50+ $22.87 $12.04 -47.4% $11.93 NA $11.64 $12.03

Notes: To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. NA indicates limited sample size. Data are in 2019 dollars.?Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. NA indicates limited sample size. Data are in 2019 dollars.?Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 7

Hourly wage gaps for domestic workers, by occupation and demographic group, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Home care aides
Domestic workers House cleaners Nannies Non-agency-based Agency-based
All -25.9%*** -20.9%*** -20.2%*** -35.5%*** -26.5%***
Gender
Female -25.9%*** -18.4%*** -22.4%*** -34.9%*** -26.7%***
Male -35.7%*** NA NA NA -33.6%***
Nativity
U.S.-born -27.5%*** -30.8%*** -15.6%*** -34.4%*** -28.0%***
Foreign-born U.S. citizen -27.3%*** -19.5%*** NA NA -27.9%***
Foreign-born noncitizen -15.9%*** -8.6%*** NA NA -14.1%***
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic -30.9%*** -31.6%*** -15.5%*** -40.0%*** -33.6%***
Black, non-Hispanic -22.2%*** NA NA NA -20.9%***
Hispanic, any race -22.8%*** -15.0%*** -24.4%*** NA -26.1%***
Asian American/Pacific Islander -31.2%*** NA NA NA -29.0%***
Other NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school graduate -8.3%*** -9.0%*** NA NA -8.5%***
High school graduate -19.1%*** -18.1%*** -7.5%** -30.3%*** -19.1%***
Some college -27.6%*** -28.4%*** -17.1%*** -33.5%*** -28.4%***
Bachelor’s degree or more -62.8%*** NA -51.8%*** NA -62.7%***
Age
Under 23 -5.9%*** NA -8.2% NA -3.5%
23–49 -23.5%*** -20.1%*** -26.3%*** -36.3%*** -22.6%***
50+ -31.3%*** -18.5%*** NA -38.0%*** -32.8%***

Notes:?All wage gaps are significantly different from zero at the 0.01 level. The regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

All wage gaps are significantly different from zero at the 0.01 level. The regressions control for gender, nativity, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, age, marital status, and census geographical division. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this figure draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata. Since the best wage measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, wages of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group?microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 8

Hours worked and share of workers with full- or part-time hours, domestic workers versus other workers, 2019

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Difference House cleaners Nannies Provide care in own home Non- agency-based Agency-based
Average weekly hours 38.94 33.36 -14.3% 26.7 31.1 39.1 34.2 34.2
All 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Full-time 77.3% 54.8% -22.5 ppt. 37.0% 52.3% 67.4% 51.7% 57.6%
Part-time 22.7% 45.2% 22.5 ppt. 63.0% 47.7% 32.6% 48.3% 42.4%
Part-time for economic reasons (i.e., want full-time) 4.0% 9.7% 5.6 ppt. 15.0% 7.4% 6.2% 9.3% 9.4%
Part-time for noneconomic reasons 18.7% 35.6% 16.9 ppt. 47.9% 40.3% 26.4% 39.0% 33.0%

Notes:?“Part-time” is defined as usually working less than 35 hours per week on the primary job. Those who say they are?working part time because they could only find part-time work or because of slack work or business conditions are categorized by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as part-timers “for economic reasons” and often described as workers who would prefer to work full time. The “part-time for economic reasons” category also includes those who are not at work but are usually part time. The “part-time for noneconomic reasons” category includes workers who say they work part time to take care of their children or for other family and personal reasons; while they may prefer to work full time if, say, they could afford child care, they are not included in the standard count of part-timers who want full-time work.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2017–2019 microdata.

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata, EPI Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020),?https://microdata.epi.org

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Table 9

Median annual earnings, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018, by demographic group

Domestic worker occupations
Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percent difference House cleaners Nannies Non- agency-based Agency-based
All $39,120 $15,980 -59.2% $14,915 $13,558 $18,111 $20,337
Gender
Female $33,374 $15,644 -53.1% $15,060 $13,850 $18,111 $19,344
Male $44,797 $20,362 -54.5% NA NA NA $22,160
Nativity
U.S.-born $40,675 $15,798 -61.2% $12,217 $13,236 $17,730 $19,816
Foreign-born U.S. citizen $41,717 $19,344 -53.6% NA NA NA $20,859
Foreign-born noncitizen $29,525 $15,272 -48.3% $13,032 NA NA $20,024
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic $42,761 $15,272 -64.3% $14,915 $11,453 NA $20,770
Black, non-Hispanic $33,026 $20,362 -38.3% NA NA NA $20,859
Hispanic, any race $29,830 $14,254 -52.2% $13,558 NA NA $16,687
Asian American/Pacific Islander $47,941 $18,111 -62.2% NA NA NA $19,177
Other $31,288 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school?graduate $19,177 $12,784 -33.3% $12,784 NA NA $16,702
High school?graduate $30,544 $17,046 -44.2% $15,883 NA NA $20,242
Some college $34,092 $16,687 -51.1% NA NA NA $20,242
Bachelor’s degree or more $61,087 $17,939 -70.6% NA NA NA $24,405
Age
Under 23 $10,429 $8,343 -20.0% NA NA NA NA
23–49 $41,549 $16,687 -59.8% $12,784 NA NA $20,362
50+ $44,288 $17,046 -61.5% $17,046 NA NA $20,024

 

Notes:?Earnings include reported annual wage and salary income but exclude income from unemployment insurance, child support, investments, Social Security, etc. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?Since the best income measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, incomes of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

Earnings include reported annual wage and salary income but exclude income from unemployment insurance, child support, investments, Social Security, etc. To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?Since the best income measure in the Current Population Survey is unavailable for self-employed workers, incomes of workers who provide child care in their own homes are not included.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source:?Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

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Table 10

Poverty rates, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018, by demographic group

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non-agency-based Agency-based
All 5.0% 16.8% 11.8 25.4% 20.1% 13.3% 14.2% 15.1%
Gender
Female 5.7% 17.3% 11.6 24.6% 20.0% 13.5% 15.0% 16.0%
Male 4.4% 10.3% 5.9 NA NA NA NA 7.5%
Nativity
U.S.-born 4.5% 16.1% 11.6 28.6% 15.6% 11.8% 12.7% 16.1%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen 4.3% 12.2% 7.9 NA NA NA NA 14.5%
Foreign-born noncitizen 10.7% 22.7% 12.0 29.2% NA NA NA 10.8%
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 3.5% 12.3% 8.9 24.4% 23.8% 7.9% NA 9.5%
Black, non-Hispanic 8.2% 18.5% 10.3 NA NA NA NA 17.6%
Hispanic, any race 8.7% 23.9% 15.2 27.2% NA NA NA 23.6%
Asian American/Pacific Islander 4.2% 9.4% 5.2 NA NA NA NA 9.0%
Other 7.5% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school?graduate 14.4% 23.6% 9.2 27.6% NA NA NA 21.0%
High school?graduate 7.0% 17.0% 10.0 25.0% NA 15.3% NA 15.4%
Some college 5.0% 16.3% 11.4 NA NA 8.9% NA 16.5%
Bachelor’s degree or more 2.0% 9.1% 7.1 NA NA NA NA 4.0%
Age
Under 23 10.5% 19.4% 8.9 NA NA NA NA NA
23–49 5.6% 22.1% 16.5 35.1% NA 17.7% NA 19.8%
50+ 2.6% 9.5% 6.9 14.0% NA 7.9% NA 9.5%

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

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Table 11

Twice-poverty rates, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018, by demographic

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non-agency-based Agency-based
All 16.9% 44.3% 27.4 54.8% 39.0% 32.4% 36.4% 45.8%
Gender
Female 18.1% 45.4% 27.3 54.5% 39.2% 32.5% 36.9% 47.8%
Male 15.8% 31.0% 15.2 NA NA NA NA 28.7%
Nativity
U.S.-born 15.0% 42.3% 27.3 54.4% 32.8% 25.1% 35.9% 46.8%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen 17.2% 40.1% 22.9 NA NA NA NA 42.8%
Foreign-born noncitizen 33.7% 54.3% 20.6 61.7% NA NA NA 44.2%
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 12.0% 34.6% 22.5 47.7% 37.9% 20.0% NA 36.5%
Black, non-Hispanic 25.4% 53.3% 27.9 NA NA NA NA 54.6%
Hispanic, any race 29.8% 54.4% 24.6 60.6% NA NA NA 53.4%
Asian American/Pacific Islander 13.7% 33.9% 20.3 NA NA NA NA 35.3%
Other 24.9% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school graduate 40.9% 55.8% 14.9 59.3% NA NA NA 55.5%
High school?graduate 24.4% 47.3% 22.9 55.4% NA 31.7% NA 50.2%
Some college 17.8% 41.9% 24.1 NA NA 28.0% NA 45.1%
Bachelor’s degree or more 6.7% 27.0% 20.3 NA NA NA NA 21.2%
Age
Under 23 29.7% 43.7% 13.9 NA NA NA NA NA
23–49 18.8% 52.7% 33.8 65.5% NA 41.5% NA 54.0%
50+ 10.4% 33.9% 23.5 41.8% NA 24.1% NA 35.0%

Notes:?The “twice-poverty rate” is the share of workers whose family income is below twice the official poverty line, and is often considered a better cutoff for whether a family is able to make ends meet.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

The “twice-poverty rate” is the share of workers whose family income is below twice the official poverty line, and is often considered a better cutoff for whether a family is able to make ends meet.?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

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Table 12

Employer-provided health insurance coverage rates, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018, by demographic group

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non- agency-based Agency-based
All 48.9% 19.1% -29.7 7.3% 15.1% 6.8% 17.1% 25.2%
Gender
Female 46.7% 18.6% -28.1 7.5% 15.1% 6.9% 16.9% 24.8%
Male 50.8% 25.0% -25.8 NA NA NA NA 28.3%
Nativity
U.S.-born 50.2% 18.9% -31.3 8.7% 9.4% 8.0% 17.0% 24.0%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen 49.7% 23.5% -26.2 NA NA NA NA 31.2%
Foreign-born noncitizen 35.3% 16.4% -18.9 5.0% NA NA NA 24.1%
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 51.1% 19.9% -31.1 8.1% 13.6% 8.1% NA 28.2%
Black, non-Hispanic 49.7% 22.7% -27 NA NA NA NA 25.8%
Hispanic, any race 39.2% 14.1% -25.1 7.0% NA NA NA 19.0%
Asian American/Pacific Islander 52.2% 22.2% -29.9 NA NA NA NA 25.2%
Other 40.6% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school?graduate 22.5% 12.6% -9.9 5.0% NA NA NA 20.2%
High school?graduate 42.8% 19.3% -23.5 9.2% NA 4.7% NA 23.9%
Some college 46.0% 20.1% -25.9 NA NA 9.3% NA 25.3%
Bachelor’s degree or more 59.9% 24.1% -35.8 NA NA NA NA 34.9%
Age
Under 23 11.5% 11.3% -0.2 NA NA NA NA NA
23–49 51.8% 18.8% -33 6.0% NA 6.4% NA 25.2%
50+ 52.8% 21.0% -31.8 9.4% NA 7.2% NA 26.9%

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata. “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

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Table 13

Employer-provided retirement coverage rates, domestic workers versus other workers, 2018, by demographic

Domestic worker occupations
Child care workers Home care aides
All other (nondomestic) workers Domestic workers Percentage-point difference House cleaners Nannies Provider in own home Non-agency-based Agency-based
All 32.8% 9.1% -23.7 2.0% 3.5% 2.6% 6.6% 13.1%
Gender
Female 32.9% 8.9% -24 2.1% 3.5% 2.6% 5.5% 13.3%
Male 32.6% 10.6% -22.1 NA NA NA NA 11.5%
Nativity
U.S.-born 34.5% 9.4% -25.1 3.2% 2.4% 3.2% 6.3% 12.9%
Foreign-born U.S. citizen 31.2% 11.1% -20.1 NA NA NA NA 15.1%
Foreign-born noncitizen 18.2% 6.2% -12.1 1.1% NA NA NA 12.2%
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 35.8% 9.6% -26.2 1.8% 3.0% 3.7% NA 14.7%
Black, non-Hispanic 31.3% 11.9% -19.4 NA NA NA NA 13.9%
Hispanic, any race 22.8% 5.6% -17.2 1.0% NA NA NA 10.0%
Asian American/Pacific Islander 32.4% 10.4% -21.9 NA NA NA NA 12.3%
Other 29.2% NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Education
Not high school?graduate 11.0% 5.4% -5.7 2.1% NA NA NA 9.7%
High school?graduate 26.5% 9.5% -17 1.4% NA 0.2% NA 14.1%
Some college 30.7% 9.9% -20.8 NA NA 4.4% NA 13.1%
Bachelor’s degree or more 42.6% 10.2% -32.4 NA NA NA NA 13.5%
Age
Under 23 7.7% 2.6% -5.1 NA NA NA NA NA
23–49 33.3% 11.0% -22.4 2.1% NA 3.1% NA 15.5%
50+ 37.9% 7.9% -29.9 2.1% NA 2.4% NA 11.2%

Notes:?To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth.

To ensure sufficient sample sizes, this table draws from pooled 2016–2018 microdata.?“Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as DACA recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

Source: Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis of Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement microdata

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Technical notes about data and definitions

The figures and tables in this chartbook use data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of households in the United States sponsored jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Our CPS basic and Outgoing Rotation Group microdata are pulled from the Economic Policy Institute Current Population Survey Extracts, Version 1.0.2 (2020), https://microdata.epi.org.

In our analyses of hourly wages, we use data from the CPS’s Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG), a CPS subgroup of employed adults asked to answer a detailed set of questions about their earnings from work. Our analyses of annual earnings, benefits, and poverty rates come from the CPS’s Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC). To ensure adequate sample sizes for these detailed analyses, we pool several years of CPS, CPS-ORG, or CPS-ASEC microdata. Most data sets are drawn from pooled 2016–2018 or 2017–2019 microdata, whichever microdata set is the most recent available. Data sets that are broken down by geography are drawn from pooled 2010–2019 microdata. Even after pooling years together, we still do not have adequate sample sizes to report statistics for some demographic groups, as indicated in the tables by “NA.”

The CPS asks respondents about both race and ethnicity, so respondents may be categorized as having Hispanic ethnicity and being of any race. To avoid including observations in multiple categories, we create five mutually exclusive categories for race/ethnicity: white (non-Hispanic), black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic (any race), Asian American/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic; sometimes referred to as “AAPI” in this report), and “other.” Likewise, gender is restricted to the two predominant binary categories: women and men. Note that for clarity, when discussing our findings, we adhere to the category name of “Hispanic,” which is used in official government sources, rather than Latino, Latina, or Latinx.

In our charts, “Foreign-born” refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen at birth. “Foreign-born noncitizen” includes foreign-born persons who are either lawful permanent residents, in a nonimmigrant status (migrants with temporary visas), or lacking an immigration status, including both unauthorized immigrants and those with lawful presence (such as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals recipients and asylum applicants whose cases are in process).

The data include all public- and private-sector workers ages 16 and older.?Due to rounding, in a few cases sums that can be calculated by using the data in tables or figures vary slightly from sums cited in the text.

Domestic worker occupations defined

Using the occupation, industry, and sector classification systems in the Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group data set, we define the domestic worker occupations as follows:

We exclude any workers who do domestic work without pay, and instead focus on those who do this work for wages. We also exclude other types of domestic workers such as cooks, gardeners, and chauffeurs.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank EPI Editor Krista Faries for improving the chartbook through her careful editing and preparing of our figures and tables for publication. And we are indebted to EPI’s Online and Creative Director, Eric Shansby, who created the awesome system that makes it possible to design and publish these interactive chartbooks.

Endnotes

1. Julia Wolfe, “Domestic Workers Are at Risk During the Coronavirus Crisis,” Working Economics Blog (Economic Policy Institute), April 8, 2020.

2. Laura Dresser,?Valuing Care by Valuing Care Workers: The Big Cost of a Worthy Standard and Some Steps Toward It, Roosevelt Institute, October 2015.

3. Linda Burnham and Nik Theodore, Home Economics: The Invisible and Unregulated World of Domestic Work, National Domestic Workers Alliance, 2012.

4. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “Policy as to Domestic Household Employment Activities in Private Residences,” Standard Number 1975.6.

5. United States General Accounting Office,?Immigration Statistics: Information Gaps, Quality Issues Limit Utility of Federal Data to Policymakers, July 1998.

6. ?Elise Gould, State of Working America Wages 2019: A Story of Slow, Uneven, and Unequal Wage Growth over the Last 40 Years, Economic Policy Institute, February 2020.


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